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Spot metering:
The most powerful exposure technique

available to the Millennium's 35mm and digital Photographer


Cheat Sheet:
	The entire book condensed onto one page.
	Why spotmetering? 
		 "Meter over mind" scenario.
		 "Mind over meter" scenario.
Chapter 1:
1.1 	Incident and Reflected Light.
1.2 	What do we mean by a tone? 
		1.2.1 A subject tone.
		1.2.2 An image tone.
		1.2.3 The image detail.
1.3 	The Standard 18% Gray Card.
1.4 	Adding white paint to black to create	 different shades of gray.
1.5 	Simple and Complex subjects.
	1.5.1 A simple subject.
	1.5.2 A complex subject. 
	1.5.3 How do simple and complex subjects relate to one another?
1.6 	The Film.
		With slide film "What you take is what you get!" 
1.7 	Exposure: "Normal" versus "Correct" and "Desired."
	1.7.1 Normal Exposure.
	1.7.2 Correct Exposure.
	1.7.3 Desired Exposure.
1.8	The camera.
1.9 	The aperture opening. 
1.10 	The exposure time (Shutter speed).
	1.10.1 Bulb Setting [B] 
1.11	The ISO dial.
1.12	The Reference Tone.
	1.12.1 Handle for visually grabbing the subject. 
1.13 	How does one choose a Reference Tone? 
	1.13.1 How to choose a Reference Tone. 
1.14	Viewing the world through five shades of gray.
	1.14.1 The Tone Ruler concept.
	1.14.2 Verifying that standard tones are one stop away from one another. 
1.15 	Equivalent exposures and the Law of Reciprocity in films.
1.16 	The Built-in Spotmeter/Partial Meter.
1.17 	The Federal Express (FedEx) Story.
	1.17.1 Letís relate the FedExís process to the function of your spotmeter
1.18 	Exposure Determination of a complex subject. 
	1.18.1 Using a Gray card and a spotmeter
1.19 	Exposure Determination of a complex subject.
	1.19.1 	Using a spotmeter without a gray card. 
	1.19.2 	Example 1. 
	1.19.3	Example 2. 
	1.19.4 	Example 3.
	1.19.5 	Exposure determination exercise. 
1.20	Letís photograph our first complex subject.
1.21	Tone Train technique applied to the snow-covered cottage. 
Chapter 2:
2.1	A review of Chapter 1. 
2.2 	Subject Highlights. 
	2.2.1 When in doubt, use your spotmeter to determine subjectís highlight. 
2.3 	Subject Lowlights (Shadows). 
	2.3.1 When in doubt, use your spotmeter to determine subjectís lowlight. 
2.4 	Examples illustrating SBR and FCR. 
	2.4.1 Example 1. 
2.5 	How to determine the SBR of a subject. 
2.6 	Film Contrast Range (FCR).
2.7 	Discussing different relationships between SBR and FCR.
	2.7.1 When the SBR is the same as the FCR and both are equal to 5 stops. 
	2.7.2 When the subjectís SBR is less than the filmís FCR. 
	2.7.3 When the SBR is greater than the FCR. 
2.8 	When Subject Brightness Range exceeds the Film Contrast Range.
Chapter 3:
3.1 	Spotmeter limitations.
3.2	Outdoor Photography. 
	3.2.1 Sunny-16 and its equivalent exposures.
	3.2.2 Hazy-11 Exposure.
	3.2.3 Cloudy-8 Exposure.
	3.2.4 Overcast-5.6 Exposure.
3.3	Freezing-5.6 to freeze the action.
3.4	Moony-64 to capture moonlit scenes.
	3.4.1 Tracing stars during moonless nights.
3.5	Photographing backlit subjects: leaves, flags, stained glass, etc. 
	3.5.1 Special note on backlighted materials. 
3.6	Silhouette photography.
3.7	Photographing translucent subjects on the surface of a light box.
3.8	Photographing sunrises and sunsets.
3.9	Photographing fireworks.
	3.9.1 Special note on fireworks.
3.10	Photographing lightning at night.
3.11	Photographing subjects with glare.
3.12	Photographing with Neutral Density Filters
	3.12.1 ND filters ó A detailed example.
3.13	Photographing with Graduated Neutral Density Filters
	3.13.1 ND Grads - A detailed and practical example.
	3.13.2 Finding the Sunlit Backgroundís correct exposure.
	3.13.3 Finding the shadowed foregroundís correct exposure.
	3.13.4 Foreground/Background exposure analysis.
Appendix A: Image Detail
A.1:	What is image detail.
A.2:	Let's expand the number of standard tones to seven.
A.3:	Relationship between "Image Tone" and "Image Detail."
A.4:	The black floor mat - Image tone versus image detail.
A.5:	The white floor mat - Image tone versus image detail.
A.6:	How to control image tones when using black and white negative film.
A.7:	Film Contrast Range for black and white film.
A.8:	The Reference Tone for black and white films.
Appendix B: Digital Photography
A brief review of Spotmetering and Digital Photography: With a special reference to Nikon
CoolPix 990. The review is intended for those photographers using a Manual Digital
Camera with spotmetering and are familiar with the basics of digital photography.
Appendix C: Electronic Cameras at a Glance
Exposure Cheat Sheets for Nikon Cameras:
	F-4, F-5, F-100, N6006, N65, N70, N80, N8008s, and N90/N90s.
Exposure Cheat Sheets for Pentax Cameras:
	645N (Medium Format), MZ-S, PZ1-p, and ZX-5N. 
Exposure Cheat Sheets for Canon Cameras:
	EOS 3, EOS A2/A2E, EOS Elan II E, EOS Elan 7 E, and EOS Rebel 2000/Rebel G.
Exposure Cheat Sheets for Minolta Cameras:
	Maxxum 7, and Maxxum STsi.
Appendix D: 
Average Metering, Partial Metering, and Spotmetering
D.1: 	Average Metering with older cameras.
		Checking meter accuracy and calibration.
		Using old camera's meter as a spotmeter.
D.2: 	Partial Metering.
D.3: 	Spotmetering. 
D.4:	Which Spotmetering camera is right for me? A checklist.


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